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You are here : Home/ Clinical Testing Zone/ Blood Chemistry Tests and Haematology Reference Values

Blood Chemistry Tests and Haematology Reference Values

TEST NORMAL VALUE* CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

7-18 mg/dL

Increased in renal disease and dehydration; decreased in liver damage and malnutrition

Carbon dioxide (CO2) (includes bicarbonate)

23-30 mmol/L

Useful to evaluate acid-base balance by measuring total carbon dioxide in the blood: Elevated in vomiting and pulmonary disease; decreased in diabetic acidosis, acute renal failure, and hyperventilation

Chloride (Cl)

98-106 mEq/L

Increased in dehydration, hyperventilation, and congestive heart failure; decreased in vomiting,diarrhea, and fever

Creatinine

0.6-1.2 mg/dL

Produced at a constant rate and excreted by the kidney; increased in kidney disease

Glucose

Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL Random: 85-125 mg/dL

Increased in diabetes and severe illness; decreased in insulin overdose or hypoglycemia

Potassium (K)

3.5-5 mEq/L

Increased in renal failure, extensive cell damage, and acidosis; decreased in vomiting, diarrhea, and excess administration of diuretics or IV fluids

Sodium (Na)

101-111 mEq/L or 135-148 mEq/L (depending on test)

Increased in dehydration and diabetes insipidus; decreased in overload of IV fluids, burns,diarrhea, or vomiting

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)

10-40 U/L

Used to diagnose and monitor treatment of liver disease and to monitor the effects of drugs on the liver; increased in myocardial infarction

Albumin

3.8-5.0 g/dL

Albumin holds water in blood; decreased in liver disease and kidney disease

Albumin-globulin ratio (A/G ratio)

Greater than 1

Low A/G ratio signifies a tendency for edema because globulin is less effective than albumin at holding water in the blood

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

20-70 U/L (varies by method)

Enzyme of bone metabolism; increased in liver disease and metastatic bone disease

Amylase

21-160 U/L

Used to diagnose and monitor treatment of acute pancreatitis and to detect inflammation of the salivary glands

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)

0-41 U/L (varies)

Enzyme present in tissues with high metabolic activity; increased in myocardial infarction and liver disease

Bilirubin, total

0.2-1.0 mg/dL

Breakdown product of hemoglobin from red blood cells; increased when excessive red blood cells are being destroyed or in liver disease

Calcium (Ca)

8.8-10.0 mg/dL

Increased in excess parathyroid hormone production and in cancer; decreased in alkalosis, elevated phosphate in renal failure, and excess IV fluids

Cholesterol

120-220 mg/dL desirable range

Screening test used to evaluate risk of heart disease; levels of 200 mg/dL or above indicate increased risk of heart disease and warrant further investigation

Creatine phosphokinase (CPK or CK)

Men: 38-174 U/L Women: 96-140 U/L

Elevated enzyme level indicates myocardial infarction or damage to skeletal muscle. When elevated,specific fractions (isoenzymes) are tested for

Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)

Men: 6-26 U/L Women: 4-18 U/L

Used to diagnose liver disease and to test for chronic alcoholism

Globulins

2.3-3.5 g/dL

Proteins active in immunity; help albumin keep water in blood

Iron, serum (Fe)

Men: 75-175 g/dL Women:65-165 /dL

Decreased in iron deficiency and anemia; increased in hemolytic conditions

High-density lipoproteins (HDLs)

Men: 30-70 mg/dL Women:30-85 mg/dL

Used to evaluate the risk of heart disease

Lactic dehydrogenase(LDH or LD)

95-200 U/L (Normal ranges vary greatly)

Enzyme released in many kinds of tissue damage, including myocardial infarction, pulmonary infarction, and liver disease

Lipase

4-24 U/L (varies with test)

Enzyme used to diagnose pancreatitis

Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)

80-140 mg/dL

Used to evaluate the risk of heart disease

Magnesium (Mg)

1.3-2.1 mEq/L

Vital in neuromuscular function; decreased levels may occur in malnutrition, alcoholism, pancreatitis, diarrhea

Phosphorus ((Page*)) (inorganic)

2.7-4.5 mg/dL

Evaluated in response to calcium; main store is in bone: elevated in kidney disease; decreased in excess parathyroid hormone

Protein, total

6-8 g/dL

Increased in dehydration, multiple myeloma;decreased in kidney disease, liver disease, poor nutrition, severe burns, excessive bleeding

Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)

>

See Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)

Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)

>

See Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)

Thyroxin (T4)

5-12.5 g/dL (varies)

Screening test of thyroid function; increased in hyperthyroidism; decreased in myxedema and hypothyroidism

Thyroid-stimulatinghormone (TSH)

0.5-6 mlU/L

Produced by pituitary to promote thyroid gland function; elevated when thyroid gland is not functioning

Triiodothyronine (T3)

120-195 mg/dL

Elevated in specific types of hyperthyroidism

Triglycerides

Men: 40-160 mg/dL Women: 35-135 mg/dL

An indication of ability to metabolize fats; increased triglycerides and cholesterol indicate high risk of atherosclerosis

Uric acid

Men: 3.5-7.2 mg/dL Women:2.6-6.0 mg/dL

Produced by breakdown of ingested purines in food and nucleic acids; elevated in kidney disease, gout, and leukemia



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