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You are here : Home/ Clinical Testing Zone/ Clinical Significance Tests and Normal Haematology Reference Values

Clinical Significance Tests and Normal Haematology Reference Values

TEST Normal value* Clinical significance
Red blood cell (RBC) count Men: 4.2-5.4 million/micro L
Women: 3.6-5.0 mil-lion/micro L
Decreased in anemia; increased in dehydration, polycythemia
Hemoglobin (Hb) Men: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Women: 12-16 g/dL
Decreased in anemia, hemorrhage, and hemolytic reactions;increased in dehydration, heart and lung disease
Hematocrit (Hct) or packed cell volume(PCV) Men: 40%-50%
Women: 37%-47%
Increased in allergic disorders
Red blood cell (RBC) indices(examples) 87-103 These values, calculated from the RBC count, HGB, and HCT, give information valuable in the diagnosis and classification of anemia
Mean corpuscular volume(MCV) micro L/red cell Decreased in anemia; increased in polycythemia, dehydration
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 26-34 pg/red cell Measures the average size or volume of each RBC: small size (microcytic) in iron-deficiency anemia; large size (macrocytic) typical of pernicious anemia
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 31-37 g/dL Measures the weight of hemoglobin per RBC; useful in differentiating types of anemia in a severely anemic patient
White blood cell (WBC) count 5,000-10,000 micro L Defines the volume of hemoglobin per RBC; used to determine the color or concentration of hemoglobin per RBC
Platelets 150,000-350,000/ micro L Increased in leukemia and in response to infection,inflammation, and dehydration; decreased in bone marrow suppression
Differential (Peripheral blood smear)   Increased in many malignant disorders; decreased in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) or toxic drug effects; spontaneous bleeding may occur at platelet counts below 20,000 micro L
WBCs Segmented neutrophils(SEGs, POLYs) 40%-74% A stained slide of the blood is needed to perform the differential. The percentages of the different WBCs are estimated, and the slide is microscopically checked for abnormal characteristics in WBCs, RBCs, and platelets.
Immature neutrophils (BANDs) 0%-3% Increased in bacterial infections; low numbers leave person very susceptible to infection
Lymphocytes (LYMPHs) 20%-40% Increased when neutrophil count increases.
Monocytes (MONOs) 2%-6% Increased in viral infections; low numbers leave person dangerously susceptible to infection
Eosinophils (EOs) 1%-4% Increased in specific infections
Basophils (BASOs) 0.5%-1% Increased in allergic disorders
*Values vary depending on instrumentation and type of test.


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